Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Roig-Vila, R. r., Mengual-Andrés, S. s., & Quinto-Medrano, P. f. (2015). Primary Teachers’ Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge.

Roig-Vila et al. (2015) argue that primary teachers’ digital literacy and teaching-learning paradigms can be cognitively and pedagogically developed by bringing together content knowledge, technological knowledge and pedagogical knowledge with the aim of integrating educational technology and research. The researchers assert the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) model, developed by Mischra and Koehker (2006), identifies the digital literacy and mastery skills that teachers need for their training and professional development. The TPACK model is defined as the reference framework in the classroom that intersects with Information and Communication Technology.

To test the TPACK model, the researchers undertook a descriptive, comparative and non-experimental quantitative and questionnaire research design. The test included 224 teachers across 12 Public Pre-School and Primary Education centers in Spain during the 2013/2014 school year. The study included 183 female teachers and 41 male teachers. The researchers used a 5-point Likert scale and asked 29 questions ranging from totally agree to totally disagree. The questions were directly related to the TPACK model and teaching and learning experience. The researchers used SPSS for data structure, analysis, and organization. The results revealed that teachers have more digital literacy in content and pedagogical knowledge than technological knowledge (p > .05). The results, surprisingly, indicated that men scored higher in technological knowledge (p > .05) than women (p < .05). The latter concludes the results are not generalizable and are biased against women.

The researchers, in my reflection, did not have an equally distributed population of female and male subjects. The results of women having less technological knowledge or being less digitally literate than men are unreliable and inconclusive. However, the study reveals that fostering a learning-teaching environment via the TPACK model is quint essential in teachers/practitioners/researchers/learners professional and educational development. The latter results are usable and generalizable and does add to the body of scholarly and educational knowledge.

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