Justus (2007) book (chapters 1 & 2) characterizes the myriad factors that influence educational technology research in terms of research methods, research questions, research problems and research purposes. This paper examines the following research paradigms: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methodologies and research designs. The researcher argues that research methodological choices are important when establishing, deciding research questions and problem statements for educational technology research and development. The researcher fundamentally and distinctively characterizes research questions into three broad categories: scholarly research questions, evaluation questions, and development tasks. What is more, the researcher describes four educational technology research classifications: knowledge base, empirical, procedural, and structural research. The researcher advises on which research method a writer should elect in terms of the research question. The researcher provides broad explanations of the research paradigms. He describes qualitative research as inductive, descriptive, illuminative and extrapolative. He describes quantitative research as deductive, causative, and predictive. This research paper also discusses the problem statement and purpose of undertaking research for educational technology and development. Finally, he describes the research purposes based on traditional purposes, which are designed based research, evaluation research and education research.

The Justin (2007) book (chapters 1 & 2) is a valuable and comprehensive source for cognitively understanding the research methodologies for educational technology and development. The researcher presents myriad of scholarly research reviews from seminal articles and books on educational technology research and development. The researcher presents educational technology empirical evaluations that provides affordances across the foundation of educational technology and development domains of which practitioners and scholars can design educational technology studies using the approaches described in the article. The researcher states that “methodology is ever the servant of substance, never the master” (p. 15). Thus, the researcher argues that the research question drives the methodology of choice and clarifies the intervention. The information is reliable and generalizable. The information affords internal validity, construct validity and external validity.

The Justin (2007) book (chapters 1 & 2) is a master piece of work in terms of educational technology research and effects. The book outlines the necessary steps to conduct educational technology research and development in terms of technology effects with, technology effects of, and technology effects through. For instance, the researcher describes the research methods and research questions to examine how technology enhances our cognition with intervention, how we perform without the technology of intervention, and how technology enhances our cognition through intervention. The researcher states “becoming familiar with the state of the previous knowledge on a research question, a literature review…makes it possible to determine how answering one’s research question will contribute to pre-existing knowledge” (p. 30). Thus, to shape an argument, problem statement, purpose statement and research question, researchers will conduct comprehensive literature reviews to add to the body of scholarly knowledge. A literature review will help practitioners-scholars envision how educational technology research and development fits into the history contextualities, present contextualities and future contextualities of research designs and designed research studies.

Randolph, Justus J. (2007). Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development, HAMK Press, HTML / PDF. (chapters 1 & 2).

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