Schwartz and Hartman (2001) undertook a qualitative study in the formation of a literature review. The researchers unfolded the scaffolds of learning with video genres. The researchers argued that learning with video genres included developing cognitive skills for self-regulation, investigation, collaboration and researching. The researchers highlighted that there is a shortage across the literature on research that related to learning with video genres. As such, the researchers made a case to undertake the study and argued that future studies and educational practices on video genres is necessary for learning and assessment. The researchers explored using video genres through formal lecturing, supplemental materials and pedagogical examples. The researchers argued that video genres may not only be used for entertainment, but also for pedagogical studies, academic focus and other educational purposes. Finally, the researchers proposed a comprehensive framework on how educational researchers and instructors can benefit from using video genres in an academic setting.




In evaluating the conceptual framework, the researchers discussed the following video genres: seeing, doing, engaging and saying. With regards to seeing, the researchers argued that seeing assesses the learners’ abilities to see something useful [that] will enable initial learning” (p. 9). For instance, a parent took a child to the Smithsonian Institute for learning and assessment. The child spent a half day seeing what artifacts the museum offers in terms of learning and assessment. The child discovered initial learning. Whereas, video genres on museum artifacts would offer the child segments of instructional engagement and perpetual learning opportunities, for example. Video genres will keep learners engaged in cognition. For instance, the child has a cognition for pre-historical animals, the researchers articulated that video genres could set the stage for deep learning and intrinsic motivation in this sort of cognition. The researchers equated video genres of doing to that of attitude and skills. That is, attitudes entailed learning from others. An adolescent learned from others to tie shoes, for example. Skills were how learners perfected self-regulatory skills, such as tying shoes. Finally, the fourth video genre was saying, for example. The researchers equated saying to acquisition of knowledge and facts. Acquisition knowledge was how learners solved problems and learn from facts.




This source was helpful for understanding video genres for learning, research and instruction. Further, the conceptual framework was very helpful in terms of future research and educational purposes. However, this study lacked a research methodology. The paper offered no data analysis or real-world results and outcomes. Therefore, this paper was not useful in terms of future and present research.


Schwartz, D. L., & Hartman, K. (2007). It is not television anymore: Designing digital video for learning and assessment. In Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B., & Derry, S.J. (Eds.), Video research in learning science (pp. 349-366). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.


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