Dr. Chow presented a study on how to implement an e-Learning program in academia. He reflected on many years of experience in industry and academia as a technology manager. He discussed a position of which he served as Director of Online Learning at a major university. He told his story about how he transitioned from managing a technological program in industry to that of implementing an online instructional technology program for a major university. He noted the vast differences on how industry and academia implement technology programs for operational and strategic purposes. His main thesis was how do you develop an on-line eLearning program in academia? His research questions were as follows: What does online learning look like? What is the cost of online learning? And, who pays for developing an online learning curriculum?

As Dr. Chow started to implement the online E-learning program, he established an acronym, namely, ADDIE. That is, A stand for analyze. D means design. The second D means develop. I mean implement. Lastly, E means evaluate. In the analysis, he articulated, when developing an online technological program, he associated analysis with evaluation and consensus. He argued that in the analysis of establishing a program, the group must continuously evaluate the processes through communication and feedback. During the communication process, he argued, there must be consensus at the table to move forward. After the group gets consensus, then the designing and developing process falls in order. Finally, after designing and developing the project, then implementation and continuous evaluation must take place.

However, in the lessons learned, Dr. Chow discovered that to build an online educational technology program, much more is needed than ADDIE. He admitted that ADDIE did not account for the human and change management factors. ADDIE, according to Dr. Chow, also lacked a needs assessment, strategic plan, resource management plan and change management plan. That is, Dr. Chow was suddenly surprised when the Dean and faculty leadership was not happy with the progress of the e-Learning project after year 1. The Dean wanted more buy in from the faculty and student body. In addition, the project faced budgeted constraints in year 2. Finally, in year 3, the technological changes were so rapid in that the requirements of e-Learning had changed as well.

The lessons learned in this review is to go to the literature and research how human factors and change management impact online e-Learning programs. For instance, it is not enough to rely on an acronym for major project and undertaking. Also, the literature will provide data on how to keep leadership informed with a major project and undertaking.


Chow, A. a. (2013). One Educational Technology Colleague’s Journey from Dotcom Leadership to University E-Learning Systems Leadership: Merging Design Principles, Systemic Change and Leadership Thinking. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 57(5), 64-73.

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